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تاريخ التسجيل : 22/07/2012
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

English Language

في الخميس يوليو 26, 2012 2:00 pm
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English Language


English is a West Germanic language that
originated from the Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon dialects brought to Britain by
Germanic settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany, Denmark
and the Netherlands. Up to that point, in Roman Britain the native population
is assumed to have spoken the Celtic language Brythonic alongside the acrolectal
influence of Latin, from the 400-year Roman occupation.



One of these incoming Germanic tribes was
the Angles, whom Bede believed to have relocated entirely to Britain. The names
'England' (from Engla land" Land of the Angles") and English (Old
English Englisc) are derived from the name of this tribe—but Saxons, Jutes and
a range of Germanic peoples from the coasts of Frisia, Lower Saxony, Jutland
and Southern Sweden also moved to Britain in this era.



Initially, Old English was a diverse group
of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Great
Britain but one of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to
dominate, and it is in this that the poem Beowulf is written.



Old English was later transformed by two
waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of the North Germanic language
branch when Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless started the conquering and
colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th
centuries. The second was by speakers of the Romance language Old Norman in the
11th century with the Norman Conquest of England. Norman developed into
Anglo-Norman, and then Anglo-French – and introduced a layer of words
especially via the courts and government. As well as extending the lexicon with
Scandinavian and Norman words these two events also simplified the grammar and
transformed English into a borrowing language—more than normally open to accept
new words from other languages.



The linguistic shifts in English following
the Norman invasion produced what is now referred to as Middle English, with
Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales being the best known work.



Throughout all this period Latin in some
form was the lingua franca of European intellectual life, first the Medieval
Latin of the Christian Church, but later the humanist Renaissance Latin, and
those that wrote or copied texts in Latin commonly coined new terms from Latin
to refer to things or concepts for which there was no existing native English
word.



Modern English, which includes the works of
William Shakespeare and the King James Bible, is generally dated from about
1550, and when the United Kingdom became a colonial power, English served as
the lingua franca of the colonies of the British Empire. In the Post-Colonial
Period, some of the newly created nations which had multiple indigenous
languages opted to continue using English as the lingua franca to avoid the
political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above
the others. As a result of the growth of the British Empire, English was
adopted in North America, India, Africa, Australia and many other regions, a
trend extended with the emergence of the United States as a superpower in the
mid-20th century.



Because English is so widely spoken, it has
often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of
the modern era, and while it is not an official language in most countries, it
is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. Some
linguists believe that it is no longer the exclusive cultural property of
"native English speakers", but is rather a language that is absorbing
aspects of cultures worldwide as it continues to grow. It is, by international
treaty, the official language for aerial and maritime communications. English
is an official language of the United Nations and many other international
organisations, including the International Olympic Committee.



English is the language most often studied
as a foreign language in the European Union, by 89% of schoolchildren, ahead of
French at 32%, while the perception of the usefulness of foreign languages
amongst Europeans is 68% in favor of English ahead of 25% for French. Among
some non-English-speaking EU countries, a large percentage of the adult
population claims to be able to converse in English – in particular: 85% in
Sweden, 83% in Denmark, 79% in the Netherlands, 66% in Luxembourg and over 50%
in Finland, Slovenia, Austria, Belgium, and Germany.



Books, magazines, and newspapers written in
English are available in many countries around the world, and English is the
most commonly used language in the sciences with Science Citation Index
reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written in English,
even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.



This increasing use of the English language
globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language
shift and even language death, and to claims of linguistic imperialism. English
itself is now open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back
into the language as a whole.



The importance of English Language


English is the only language which is
widely spoken all over the world. English



language is a common language and is spoken
in many countries as well. So it is considered as a universal language. It has
gained its popularity all over the countries in the world on which most of the
universities in the world include English as one of their major subject. We are
living in the world of globalization, so English is also often used as the
official languages almost allover the countries in the world. So English
language has a great importance in the world’s globalization.



As we know that, we are at the twenty first
century, in the competitive world, so we should be well known about the English
language, because English is the foremost criteria whether you are applying for
a job or you are seeking admission in an A-level or reputed college, university
or institution. Even companies and organizations welcome those types of
candidates on their organization, who are fluent English and have the relevant
qualification in English and those without the above qualification is rejected.



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معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

رد: English Language

في الجمعة يوليو 27, 2012 3:57 am
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